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For circuits operating at or above 2,000 volts between conductors, a conductive shield may surround each insulated conductor. This equalizes electrical stress on the cable insulation. This technique was patented by Martin Hochstadter in 1916;<ref> Underground Systems </ref> the shield is sometimes called a Hochstadter shield. The individual conductor shields of a cable are connected to earth ground at the ends of the cable, and at locations along the length if voltage rise during faults would be dangerous.
Cables for power distribution of 10kV or higher may be insulated with oil and paper, and are run in a rigid steel pipe, semi-rigid aluminum or lead sheath. For higher voltages the oil may be kept under pressure to prevent formation of voids that would allow [[partial discharge]]s within the cable insulation.
Modern [[high voltage cable]]s use polymers or polyethylene, including (XLPE) for insulation. They ask for special techniques for jointing and terminating, see [[High voltage cable]].
Most multiconductor cables today have a bare or insulated ”grounding” or ”bonding” wire which is for connection to [[earth ground]]. The grounding conductor connectes equipment enclosures to ground for protection from electric shock.
Electrical power cables are often installed in raceways, including [[electrical conduit]] and cable trays, which may contain one or more conductors.
A hybrid cable can include conductors for control signals or may also include [[fiber optics|optical fibers for data.
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